Quality of life and associated factors of kidney transplant patients in Ethiopia
Mekdim Siyoum1, Mahteme Muleta1, Tekleberhan Gebretsadik1, Engida Gelan1, Tsion Ketema1, Tesfalem Teshome2, Kenneth Woodside3, Alan Leichtman4, Jeffery Punch3.
1Surgery, Saint Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Public Health, Saint Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States; 4Nephrology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
Introduction: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the preferred rerplacement treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It provides better quality of life (QoL) besides many other benefits. World Health Organization defines QoL as an individual’s awareness of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and relate to their goals, hopes, standards and concerns. Several studies on QoL of patients who had KT are done using standardized qualitative and quantitative methodologies around the world. We haven’t come across publication on QoL after KT from Africa. This study was done to determine the quality of life and associated factors of kidney transplant patients in Ethiopia, Eastern Africa.
Methodology: The study was conducted at Ethiopian Ministry Health's National kidney transplant center located at Saint Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa Ethiopia. It was an institution-based cross-sectional study design. A validated questionnaire KTQ-25 was used for data collection on 97 kidney transplant patients . The study was conducted from Jan 28, 2019 to April 5, 2019. Descriptive analyses of demographic and QoL variables were conducted. Also demographic and patient characteristic variables included in and bivariate analyses were conducted using student t-test and one way analysis of variance or ANOVA were used to determine relationships between demographics, and QoL.
Results and Discussion: The mean of QoL in this study was 6.06 ∓ 0.79, the maximum score was obtained in appearance dimension and the minimum score was obtained in fear dimension. In comparing the quality of life scores based on the socio-demographic factors, no statistically significant difference was observed. In comparing the quality of life scores based on health-related and functional characters a statistical difference was observed between the quality of life score based on the time after transplant (p=0.035) and the duration returning to their job after transplant (p=0.031). P-value < 0.05 is considered as statistical significance. Published studies couldn’t be found about quality of life in kidney transplant patients as many worldwide and couldn’t come across with such studies in Africa. Despite this fact QoL in Ethiopia is good measuring a mean score of 6.068 + 0.79 which is higher than that of Rebollo in Spain (5.9 ∓1.18), Oveilly study in US (4.5 ∓1.2), Iran (4.9 ∓1.27) and Chinese (4.8 ∓1.43) which has been reported with the same questionnaire.
Conclusions: Even though Kidney transplantation was started only four years back, Ethiopian kidney transplant patients’ quality of life level is better. Time after transplant and the duration to return to their job after transplant has a statistically significant association with quality of life. Having a counseling session for those who score low in quality of life domains is recommended.
Keywords: quality of life, kidney transplantation, associated factors
Saint Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College. Ethiopian Health Ministry.
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